The nation’s strong agricultural and mining sectors laid the foundations for 26 years of continuous economic growth, but without undertaking significant risks in innovation, this growth would not have occurred. The Brookings Institute examines why it is difficult to measure the innovative capacity of countries and to predict where tomorrow’s success may lie. To address future opportunities, the Australian government established the Innovation and Science Australia Board in 2016 and recently announced the Australia 2030: Prosperity through Innovation plan, which can be accessed by clicking on the link.